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PozziS.P', Lavi Jand Rabl-Avidor M
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Intervet-Shering Plough, Italy; Shavey-Zion, Israel; Dyn-Diagnostic, KfarNahalal, Israel. C re p n e c s o l be s n to: or s o d n e h ud e t paolo.pozzi@sp.intervet.com +39 335 7720466 Key w r s Guardia, piglets, diarrhea, dimetridazole, water, zoonotic. od :
SM AY U MR A case of atypical piglet pre-weaning diarrhea, non-responsive to antibiotics, was investigated in a farrow-to-finish sw herd in northern Israel. The presence of Giardia spp. was confirmed without further classification. Giardia is a c m o contaminant of water and feed in s m places. It has been diagnosed previously in the Israeli h o mn oe u population, irrespective of socio-economic background.. The clinical case was successfully controlled by dimetridazole therapy. It is highly unlikely that porcine Giardia present zoonotic problem or a source of water contamination.
More than half of the sow population and pig production I T O U TO NR D CI N concentrated in a small geographic area. Because of the confin In Israel pigs are bred on 24 premises from a nucleus of 1 0nature of the area 30 0 t farms are a to 1 0 0 sows which produce 170,000 slaughtered pigs per year. access roads however,lehe pedestrians interconnected ie 40 share for vehic s, and feed suppl All except one of the farms is located in the north (Galilee), while the exception is located in southern Israel (Negev). The Israel We report here a clinical case of chronic enteritis of pre weani swine population is well isolated for two main reasons: i) the ng piglets, on an Israeli pig farm. The enteritis was caus by swine population of all neighbouring countries is minimal; ii) no Giardia infection which is rare in western Europe. pigs are imported. However, s m n for artificial insemination is Giardia is a protozoan, belonging to the phylum Protozoa ee imported from central Europe (mainly Germany) and Cyprus.subphylum: Sarcomastigophora; class: Mastigophora (4). Thus the epidemiology of the Israeli pig population differs Giardia is bilaterally symmetrical, with eightflagella,an substantialy from that of western Europe (3). Israel s e s to provided with a large adhesive disk on the body's ven e m be surface. The disk allows the attachment to the epithelial ce substantialy free from Aujeszky Disease, Porcine Reproductive u as Respiratory Syndrome and Swine Influenza (3), which are of the intestinal mucosa (4). Giardia parasitizes h m n and be found also in the faeces of dogs, cats, farm animals and widespread in most EU countries. In contrast, epidemic ani transmissible gastroenteritis, that has nearly disappeared from mals (5) (Fig. 1). Giardia can be a responsible for chron western Europe since the middle 1 8 s is still present (2). diarrhea of man and also of domestic animals. (4). 90 Giardia's distribution in pigs in western countries as show in table 1 is not homogeneous. T be 1. Distribution of Giardia in pig breeding units in Canada and western Europe. al
Ya er
1997 1998/2002 2006 2007
C u ty o nr
Canada Germany Denmark Norway
Sm l H r sAe s ap e ed / r a
236 pigs 1427 pigs 1500 pigs 684 litters 15 areas 50 herds 100 herds
% p stv o ii e
9% pigs -66% units 0,1% pigs 18 to 84% pigs (age related) 1.5% litters - 10% herds
Rf e.
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Giardia isolated from pigs indicates clearly that its origin An explanation of Giardia's easy transmission is likely d to might be human, livestock or dogs, or vice versa, but the role of: i) its high resistance to the environment; ii) low sensitivit pigs in transmission to h m n is still unknown (10). In USAto disinfectants; iii) low infectious dose; iv) wide spreading u as u as (4) and in Italy (11) it was found that the origin and spread of several hosts including h m n (11). Different Giardia spec u as Giardia might be from water or via feed contamination (12). have been recognized, however, from h m n and animals 4 6
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are morphologically similar, giving rise to s m controversy onavailable, cheap and easily given per os. oe their taxonomic classification. All the diseased piglets received immediate treatment with Giardia duodenalis is the preferred n m for Giardia infecting mg/kg of metronidazole, per os, once per day, for 3 -5 days. ae h m n and mammals; in addition also Giardia intestinalis and the contact piglets in the s m pen received the s m treatme u as ae ae G. lamblia are known. These belong to assemblage A of the As a result the clinical incidence decreased rapidly to 0.8-1.3 phylogenetic map as proposed by Thompson (13) based on the per litter, and mortality to a few cases. 18S rRNA g n sequence. Here we will adopt the generic n m ee ae DS U SO ICSI N Giardia. Among the parasites, Giardia should b considered in e MATERIAL AND METHODS. cases of sporadic diarrhea in pre-weaning piglets, along w In a closed breding unit of 1200 gilts and s w chronic Clostridium and Cryptosporidium. os diarrhea was observed in piglets before weaning, starting at the Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis; G. lamblia) is second and up to 4 w e of age and persisting until weaningdistributed worldwide, and identified in h m n and domes ek u as at 30 - 35 days. The diarrhea was grey-green or grey-yellow in livestock, particularly in young animals and children. Its color; not watery; but dense and formed in s m cases. oe presence in Israel has been already documented (14, 15 ,16). The distribution was about 6,5% - 7% a o g the litters The precautions for h m n should be based on persona mn u as affecting 80% of the piglets from each litter (about 150 affected ene and the environment. In livestock farming focus hygi piglets in total). The mortality reached 20-25%. In addition, theshould be m d on drinking water quality; water collec ae surviving piglets had a reduced growth rate compared with the distribution systems, and the sanitary status of personn and healthy animals. working at the farm. The diarrhea was insensitive to the c m o antibiotic treat- Sanitization of drinking water for livestock is achieved w o mn m ns - mainly quinolones, gentamicine or cephalosporines. iodine, while chlorine s e s to b less efficacious. Water et em e At necropsy, the abdominal cavity was affected severely.'Thefiltration is justified if there is a very high incidence and stomach appeared soft and engorged. The small intestine waslosses. partially empty and extended by gas, with tracts full of soft The possibility of zoonotic infection from pigs to h m n u a yellow-grey d n e material. The large intestine appeared soft atios is unlikely. Giardia cysts are degraded in liquid es popul and contained similar material (Fig. 2) manure and it is unlikely that pig manure is a threat for wat The mesenteric lymph nodes appeared congested and enlargedcontamination (17,18). On the contrary, reducing the proportio (Fig. 3). The stomach showed a mild gastritis (Fig. 2) and the of pig manure by mixing it with h m n slurry contributes to u a presence of undigested food. survival of cysts (18). Differential diagnosis with E.coli and TGE virus enteritis were m d because of the piglets' age, diarrhea characteristics, ae and antibiotic resistance (2). Cryptosporidium and C. perfrigens were suspected, while the latter generally affects older piglets. Pooled samples of diarrhea from different litters were sent REFERENCES Services and Animal Health - Israel -Yea to. The Veterinary the laboratory for identification, isolation and a sensitivity test 1 Reports, 1999-2006 of the causative agent. Pozzi S Y, Bonilauri P, Brenner J, At the laboratory, the following investigations were made: 2. Elad D, P, Adani A, Perl S, Stram Y, Yadin Cordioli P Lavazza H, Clinica - Flotation for parasites examination epidemiological, diagnostic, productive investigations - Direct microscopic observation of a glass-dragged oil drop in course of a TGE outbreak in Israel, Proc. XXI SIPA Mantova (I), 263-272, 2005 - Bacteriological examination. 3. Elad D, Samina I, Nankin M, Barigazzi G, Foni E, RESULTS Guazzetti S, Pozzi SP. Serological monitorino towards Giardia species was detected by microscopy examination antigens responsible of respiratory diseases in fattening pigs in Israel, Proc XXVIII SIPAS, Piacenza (I), 155-1 in oil immersion and identified by morphology (4). The flotation excluded Criptosporidium and other parasites. The 2002 bacteriological examination confirmed the presence of a rare E. Urquhart G M, Armour J, Duncan J L, Dunn A M, Jennin 4. coli (sensitive to amoxy-clavulanic- cefthriaxone). F W, : Veterinary Parasitology, Longman. UK, 205-217 The m s active compounds against Giardia belong to the 1987 ot benzimidazole carbamate group (mebendazole, fenbendazole,5. van Keulen H, Macechko P T, W d S, Schaaf S, Wallis ae albendazole), but the latter requires a long and repetitive M, Erlandsen S L, Presence of h m n Giardia in dome u a treatment, which might be difficult to apply in young animals. farm and wild animals and environmental samples sugg a zoonotic potential for giardiasis, Vet Parasitology, 09 The metronidazole (5-nitroimidazole) syrup was the ideal 108(2):97-107, 2002 choice for Giardia treatment, because it is commercialy
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6. Olson M E, Thorlakson C L, Deselliers L, Morck D W, McAllister T A, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Canadian farm animals Vet Parasitology, 03; 68(4):375-381, 1 9 97 7. Epe C, Coati N, Schneider T Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, h d e o s and rabbits between 1 9 and eghg 98 2002. Dtsch Tier Woch, 06; lll(6):243-247, 2004 8. Maddox-Hyttel C, Langkjaer R B, Enemark H L, Vigre H, Cryprosporidium and Giardia in different a e groups g of Danish cattle and pigs - occurrence and m n g m n aae et associated risk factors. Vet Parasitology, 10; 141(l-2):48-59, 2006 9. H m e I S, Gjerde B K, Forberg T, Robertson L J, a ms Occurrence of Cryprosporidium and Giardia in suckling piglets in Norway. Vet Parasitology 03; 144(3-4):222-233, 2007. 10. Lindsay D S, Dubey J P, Coccidia and other Protozoa, in Diseases of swine. 9 Ed., Blackwell Ames, Iowa, 861-873, 2006 11. Brandonisio O. Waterborne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Parassitologia, 06; 48(l-2):91-94, 2006 12. Smith H, Nichols R A Zoonotic protozoa - food for thought. Parassitologia, 6; 48(1-2):101-104, 2006 13. Thompson R.C.A, Hopkins R.M., a d H m n W.L. n o a Nomenclature and genetic groupings of Giardia infecting mammals. Parasitology Today 16: 210-213. (2000) 14. Fraser D., Dagan R., Naggan L., Greene V, El-On J., AbuRbiah Y., Deckelbaum R. Natural history of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium infections in a cohort of Israeli Bedouin infants: a study of a population in transition. Am. Jour. Med. Hyg. Nov ; 5 (5):544-549 (1997) 7 15. Nahmias J., Greenberg Z., Djerrasi L., Giladi L., Mass treatment of intestinal parasites a o g Ethiopian Figure 2: I p ce intestinal contents consisting of yellowmn m at d immigrants. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 27(5):278-283 (1991) ge material. Enlarged inguinal lymph n d s (probably PCV ry oe correl 16. Lerman Y., Slepon R., Cohen D. Epidemiology of acute ated). diarrheal diseases in children in a high standard of living rural settlement in Israel. Pediatric Infect. Dis. Jour. 1 3 (2):116-122 (1994) 17. Olson M. E., Guselle N. are pig parasites a h m n health u a risk ? in Advances in pork production. Vol. 11: 1 31 2 5-6 (2000) 18. Deng M., Cliver D. Degradation of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed h m n and swine waste. App.Environ. Microb. 5 u a 8 (8): 2368-2374 (1992)
Ak o ld mn c n we g e t Dr. E. Greva of Intervet is acknowledged for her review of the text.
Figure 3: Undigested so a h contents. Mild gastritis. C n e t tmc o g se e l r e m s nei l m h nodes. nag d e e t rc y p
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